The Crafting Strider

Raman But-Husaim's personal webblog. Ideas, tech articles born through the life of a software engineer

How I migrated my pet project from distillery to elixir releases

Intro

A core concept in the Erlang/Elixir distribution strategy is the notion of releases. According to Erlang documentation release is

When you have written one or more applications, you might want to create a complete system with these applications and a subset of the Erlang/OTP applications. This is called a release.

A release by itself is an artifact which contains the application and everything needed to run it. It allows developers to pre-compile and package all their code (and runtime) into a single unit that could be launched on any machine or container with the platform supported by the compiler.

Even though it is possible to distribute applications in the form of source code and compile and launch them on the target environment manually release is still a recommended way to do such things. The pros of releases are greatly outlined in the official docs. In short the list looks like this:

  • code preloading;
  • configuration and customization;
  • self-contained;
  • multiple releases;
  • management scripts.

The closest thing in dotnet world (where I'm working at the moment) is dotnet publish and artifacts produced by this command.

Prior to Elixir 1.9 the most widely used approach to create releases was to utilize distillery package. As part of 1.9 the concept of releases was embedded inside the core distribution and is available via mix release command with no 3-rd party dependencies (that is a good thing).

The Changes

As the application that I'm working on at the moment does not have any deployment targets this part of the story won't be covered. More details though could be discovered in the article about hex.pm transition.

Taking this into account the following steps should be considered as part of the transition process:

  • the changes inside mix.exs to include information about releases;
  • replace the usage of use Mix.Config to import Config in configuration files;
  • a new config/releases.exs should be added in order to apply runtime configuration;
  • remove distillery as a dependency as it is no longer needed;
  • tune CI process in order to adopt new releases.

As I do not use rel/vm.args and rel/hooks/pre_configure now there was no need to transition them however it might be the case for your particular process.

Some more words on the each step outlined above.

mix.exs & releases

Elixir core team decided to slightly change the way how releases are defined so instead of using rel/config.exs the standard mix.exs has to be extended. A well-known project part now relies on the new releases key responsible for release definition.

Please be aware that releases have sensible defaults so that they may satisfy your needs entirely. In my case I've removed windows executables and explicitly specified a bunch of options.

This is what could be found inside my mix.exs:

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  def project() do
    [
      ...
      releases: releases()
    ]
  end

  defp releases() do
    [
      dev: [
        include_executables_for: [:unix],
        include_erts: true,
        strip_beams: false,
        quiet: false
      ],
      subsys: [
        include_executables_for: [:unix],
        include_erts: true,
        strip_beams: true,
        quiet: false
      ],
      prd: [
        include_executables_for: [:unix],
        include_erts: true,
        strip_beams: true,
        quiet: false
      ]
    ]
  end

Mix.Config deprecation

The though process around Elixir config resulted in the fact that now Config represents configuration both in build- and runtime. Mix is the tool that is available in build-time only and could NOT be used when the application is launched. As a result Mix.Config has been deprecated in favor of Config.

The change operation was simple enough - I've went through config/config.exs, config/dev.exs, config/test.exs, etc. and migrated use Mix.Config to import Config.

Runtime configuration

The story behind configuration in Elixir began long time ago, prior I've started to dive deep into BEAM. There were a whole bunch of discussions on elixir forum and blog posts (eg. here and here) regarding the situation. The links above could be a good start in order to understand the difficulties with config. These discussions and Paul's (aka bitwalker) and other community members experience & effort led to the release of distillery 2.0 that improved the situation significantly and inspired the design inside Elixir core.

In order to use runtime-based configuration such as username/passwords, api tokens, etc. that will be read on the machine where application starts (not built) Elixir core team decided to introduce a new file config/releases.exs. distillery in comparison relied on rel/config/*.exs files. If the application has already used distillery 2.0 there should be quite few changes in order to support mix release. In my case they have the same content.

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import Config

config :my_awesome_app,
  couchdb_url: System.fetch_env!("API_DB_CONNECTION"),
  couchdb_admin_username: System.fetch_env!("API_ADMIN_USERNAME"),
  couchdb_admin_password: System.fetch_env!("API_ADMIN_PASSWORD"),
  couchdb_user_username: System.fetch_env!("API_USER_USERNAME"),
  couchdb_user_password: System.fetch_env!("API_USER_PASSWORD")

Distillery clean-up

A pretty straightforward operation that could be completed in two steps:

  • mix deps.unlock distillery - this is required in order to clean-up distillery from the mix.lock file;
  • remove distillery as a dependency from mix.exs;

CI changes

The changes in the CI were required as distillery and mix release differ in quite few places:

  • by default distillery creates a tarball; mix release do not though it is possible;
  • the folder structure is slightly different in distillery and mix release;
  • the commands to start the application are different as well.

Tarball

Tarball is quite convenient way to store and distribute the application binaries and distillery produces it as part of the release process. At the same time the necessity to unpack tarball in docker-based deployments and multi-stage builds adds an extra-step that could be avoided.

This might be connected with the fact that mix release produces a plain release. It is possible to pack the release in the tarball using mix even though an extra step will be required to do this.

For my application the launch_service.sh script that is responsible for starting the app to run API tests has changed slightly and become simpler.

Before:

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mkdir -p _app/$APP_NAME
cp _build/subsys/rel/$APP_NAME/releases/*/$APP_NAME.tar.gz _app/$APP_NAME.tar.gz
tar -xzf _app/$APP_NAME.tar.gz -C _app/$APP_NAME
_app/$APP_NAME/bin/$APP_NAME start

After:

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_build/subsys/rel/subsys/bin/subsys daemon

Path

The script above shows one more difference - the change in path.

distillery utilizes the following path for its tarball - _build/<env>/rel/<name>/releases/<version>/<name>.tar.gz.

In comparison mix produces something like _build/<env>/rel/<rel_name>/bin/<rel_name>.

For me the absence of version and tarball in the default output for mix release may have common roots. It is possible however to get the same output with reasonable amount of tuning.

Commands

The meaning of the commands in distillery and newly born mix release is different so it makes sense to read the docs first.

For example, start in distillery launches the app in the background as a daemon. At the same time start in mix makes the app running in the foreground. The equivalent of start is daemon command in mix and that is what you could see in the above example. For me there is no big difference in understanding and they both work fine when you've played some time with the tool and its docs.

Summary

Elixir 1.9 finally closed the gap in the out of the box tooling. Even though there are differences between mix release and distillery it is quite clear that the great design and implementation work done by the creators of distillery influenced the newborn feature. For me it took about 2 hours to migrate my simple project to mix release and I'm quite happy with it for now.